- How are policy agendas formed? Include of interactions and dynamics among actors, interests, institutions, and processes in the discussion.
Trace the enactment of public policies by Congress and the president
Congress help pass public policies through congressional legislation. The president and congress are both involved in adopting of the policy. They take governmental action through executive order. Policy adoption may also take place when the president signs an executive order or when the Supreme Court rules on an important case.
Discuss the implementation and interpretation of policies by the bureaucracy.
The Bureaucracy implements and interprets policies by carrying out the policy and making sure businesses and people know about the regulations. The bureaucracy comes up with penalties and enforcement for policies. This involves bargaining with different interest groups and levels of government through hearings and comment periods.
Discuss the implementation and interpretation of policies by the courts in the policy process.
The courts implement and interpret policies in the policy process very similarly to the bureaucracy.
Most public policies are carried out by administrating agencies in the executive branch, but courts sometimes get involved. Courts get involved in the implementing decisions by applying the law, not necessarily making the law. Specifically, courts inherit the power that the policies yield.
Investigate and describe policy networks and issue networks in at least three domestic policy areas.
- Taxation: tax code is a way to redistribute revenue from one group to another. Income tax is progressive. This was created by the 16th amendment in 1913. In 1986 a major tax revision created 2 brackets so the wealthy couldn't use as many loopholes. Other taxes are regressive because the poor pay a larger percentage of income taxes because everyone is taxed at the same rate. (sales tax, social security, cigarettes, alcohol and gasoline.
-Education: Controlled by state and local government. Federal government spends less than 10% of budget on education. No child left behind was an unfunded mandate by George Bush.
-Redistributive policy: this policy redistributes money or benefits from one group to another. Most programs involve redistribution of income, this is a safety net for the poor. Affirmative actions redistribute employment and education from non-elite to elite.
Investigate and describe policy networks and issue networks in at least three foreign policy areas.
-Interventionism: US uses sanctions (permission or restriction), treaties, or military force in pursuit of a goal.
(the action or policy of preventing the expansion of a hostile country or influence.)
-Containment: Stop the spread of communism during the cold war years. (The action or policy of preventing the expansion of a hostile country or influence.)
-Isolationism: avoid entangling alliances. (A policy of remaining apart from the affairs or interests of other groups, especially the political affairs of other countries.)
Identify and describe the impact of federalism on policy processes and policymaking in the federal context.
Federalism greatly affects the policy making process for several reasons. First, State and local governments become providing grounds for new ideas. For example, Georgia was the first state to allow 18 year olds to vote and California was the first state to make air pollution programs to protect the environment. Next,
public pressure at the national level forces state and local policy changes. People have many points of access to the government, increasing their opportunities to affect policy at some level.
Identify and describe the impact of interest groups on policy processes and policymaking in the federal context.
Interest groups have a major impact on policy making processes, First of all, interest groups can utilize litigation to achieve certain policy objective. They influence public policies in their favor by lobbying members of government. This is a key element in the decision making process which shows the impact of interest groups in the policy making process.
Identify and describe the impact of political parties on policy processes and policymaking in the federal context.
Political parties also have a major impact on policy processes and policy making because political party leaders will suggest new policies to grass root members and at a local level members of that party will discuss upon those suggested policies. Then, at a higher level, it will be presented to legislation in hope to get it passed as a law. Suggestion of policies by political parties often creates new laws.
Identify and describe the impact of elections on policy processes and policymaking in the federal context.
Elections definitely have a large impact on policy processes and policy making. Elections impact policy making because it effects the nomination and voting of candidates. People will vote for the candidate that supports the policies that they favor.